Concentrated Sulfuric Acid is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid with strong corrosive and oxidizing properties. During storage and use, it must be operated in strict accordance with the specifications and pay attention to safety.
1. Health hazards:
It has a strong stimulating and corrosive effect on skin, mucous membrane and other tissues.
Steam or mist can cause conjunctivitis, conjunctival edema, corneal opacity, and even blindness. It causes severe respiratory tract irritation and dyspnea and pulmonary edema; high depth causes laryngeal spasm or glottis edema and suffocation.
After oral administration, it causes burns of the digestive tract and ulcers; severe cases may have gastric perforation, peritonitis, kidney damage, mourning, etc. The lethal dose of oral concentrated sulfuric acid is about 5 ml.
Erythema occurs in mild skin burns, and ulcers in severe skin burns. After healing, the scars shrink and affect function. Splashing into the eyes can cause burns, even corneal perforation, panophthalmitis and even blindness.
Chronic effects: People who have been exposed to Sulfuric Acid mist for a long time may have symptoms such as nasal mucosal atrophy with decreased or disappeared sense of smell, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary sclerosis, and tooth erosion.
2. Environmental hazards: the solution can cause pollution to water and soil, and sulfuric acid mist is also a kind of air pollution.
3. Fire and explosion hazard: Although sulfuric acid is not combustible, many reactions will cause fire or explosion. If it reacts with metal powder, it will produce flammable gas. Mixing with water will generate a lot of heat. In case of fire, use sand, dry powder fire extinguisher or carbon dioxide fire extinguisher to extinguish the fire immediately. Do not extinguish with water.
Respiratory protection: When you may be exposed to sulfuric acid vapor or smoke, you must wear a gas mask or air-supplied helmet. In emergency rescue or escape, it is recommended to wear self-contained breathing apparatus or cover the nose and mouth with a damp cloth.
Eye protection: wear chemical safety glasses.
Protective clothing: wear work clothes (made of anti-corrosion materials) and rubber shoes.
Hand protection: wear rubber gloves.
Others: The workplace should be ventilated, have water sources and fire-fighting equipment, and should have safety showers and eye-washing equipment. After work, take a shower and change clothes. Store contaminated clothes separately and use them after washing. Maintain good hygiene.
If there is a leakage of the most concentrated sulfuric acid, a large amount of tap water can be used for flushing, the cleaning liquid is collected in a waste liquid bucket, and discharged after treatment. If there is a large amount of concentrated sulfuric acid leaking, evacuate personnel from the leaked contaminated area to a safe area, and prohibit irrelevant personnel from entering the contaminated area. It is recommended that emergency personnel wear masks and chemical protective clothing. Reasonably ventilate, do not directly touch the leakage, do not contact the leakage with combustible substances (wood, paper, oil, etc.), and stop the leakage under safe conditions. Spray water mist to slow down volatilization (or diffusion), but do not spray water directly on the leakage or the leakage point. Mix with sand, dry lime or soda ash, and then collect and transport to waste disposal sites for disposal. It can also be rinsed with a large amount of water, and the diluted wash water is collected and treated before being discharged.
Skin contact: Take off contaminated clothing, rinse with a large amount of 2% sodium bicarbonate solution or water for more than 20 minutes (wiping with a cloth will enlarge the burn area), and seek medical attention.
Eye contact: Lift the eyelid, rinse with running water or saline for 15 minutes, and seek medical attention.
Inhalation: Leave the scene quickly to a place with fresh air, and give oxygen when breathing is difficult. Give 2-4% sodium bicarbonate solution nebulized inhalation and seek medical attention.
Ingestion: Give milk, egg white, or vegetable oil to the person who accidentally swallows it. Do not induce vomiting. Seek medical attention immediately.
Pay attention to the control of Sulfuric Acid Mist and strengthen ventilation and exhaust. The maximum allowable concentration of sulfuric acid mist in the workshop: 2mg/m3, and there should be convenient washing in the workshop. Prohibit fireworks and water ingress. Strictly abide by the operating regulations, and handle with care.
Concentrated sulfuric acid can release a lot of heat after being dissolved in water. Therefore, when concentrated sulfuric acid is diluted, the concentrated sulfuric acid is often poured into the water slowly along the wall of the vessel and stirred continuously to dissipate the heat generated by the dilution in time. Keep in mind that the acid enters the water, pour slowly along the wall of the vessel, and do not stir. Do not add water to the acid, otherwise it will splash and cause burns. The diluted sulfuric acid should be cooled to room temperature and stored in the reagent bottle.
If you accidentally pour concentrated sulfuric acid on the test table, you can wipe it off with a rag and then rinse with water. The cleaning fluid is collected and processed before being discharged.
It should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated warehouse, and should be stored separately from flammable materials, reducing substances, alkalis, and metal powders.