Physical properties of Nitric Acid: pure nitric acid is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, the mass fraction of commercially available concentrated nitric acid is about 65%, the density is about 1.4g/cm3, the boiling point is 83°C, it is volatile and can be dissolved in water in any proportion. Nitric acid with a mass fraction of more than 98% is called "smoke nitric acid", because this acid is more volatile and forms white smoke in the presence of moist air, which is corrosive.
Nitric Acid Manufacturers point out that nitric acid is an important chemical raw material and an important reagent necessary for laboratories. Nitric acid can be used industrially to make fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, dyes, salts, etc. In the microelectronics industry, as a strong acid cleaning etchant, it can be formulated with glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.
At room temperature, the reaction rate of iron in nitric acid and its relationship with nitric acid concentration, we will find that the reaction rate of iron initially increases with the increase of nitric acid concentration. When it is increased to a certain extent, its reaction rate decreases rapidly. When it continues to increase the concentration of nitric acid, its reaction rate is smaller, and no longer reacts, that is, iron becomes "stable", or as the general saying Yes, the iron "passivated". Passivation can stabilize metals. Essentially, this is because the metal surface is covered with an oxide film, thus improving the corrosion resistance of the metal.
The Nitric Acid Supplier recommends that nitric acid reacts with ammonia to produce ammonium nitrate. It is also a chemical fertilizer with a higher nitrogen content than ammonium sulfate and has a higher fertilizer effect on various soils. Ammonium nitrate is easy to agglomerate when the climate is relatively humid, which is not convenient when used.
There is a close relationship between explosives and nitric acid. The explosive that appeared early was black powder, and its ingredients contained sodium nitrate (or potassium nitrate). Later, cotton reacted with concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid to produce nitrocellulose, which is a much stronger explosive than black powder.
Put glycerin in concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid to produce nitroglycerin. This is a colorless or yellow transparent oily liquid. It is a very unstable substance. It will decompose upon impact, generate high temperature, and generate a large amount of gas. The volume of the gas expands suddenly, causing a violent explosion. So nitroglycerin is a powerful explosive.
The most commonly used military is TNT (transliteration of English TNT) explosives. It is made from the reaction of toluene with concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. It is a yellow flake. It has the advantages of high explosive power, stable drug properties, and low hygroscopicity. It is commonly used as explosives for artillery shells, grenades, mines and torpedoes. It can also be used in blasting operations such as mining.